Sulfur mining in Kawah Ijen, Indonesia

In East Java (Indonesia) lies Kawah Ijen volcano, topped with a large caldera and a 200-meter-deep lake of sulfuric acid. The quietly active volcano emits gases through fumaroles inside the crater, and local miners have tapped those gases to earn a living. Pipes cap the fumaroles, and inside, the sulfur condenses into a molten red liquid, dripping back down and solidifying into pure sulfur. Miners hack chunks off with steel bars, braving extremely dangerous gases and liquids with minimal protection, then load up as much as they can carry for the several kilometers to the weighing station. Loads can weigh from 45 to 80kg, and a single miner might make as many as two or three trips in a day. At the end of a long day, miners take home approximately Rp50,000 ($5.00 u.s.). The sulfur is then used for vulcanizing rubber, bleaching sugar and other industrial processes nearby.
View of the Sulfur´s mine and Sulfuric Acid lake in Kawah Ijen volcano, East Java, Indonesia. : Indonesia, Java, Sulfur, Sulfur Mine, Kawah Ijen, volcano, Angel Navarrete, colour, miner, stone, yellow, mask, breath, Asia, Crater Two miners descend to the ulfur´s mine in the crater of Kawah Ijen volcano : Indonesia, Java, Sulfur, Sulfur Mine, Kawah Ijen, volcano, Angel Navarrete, colour, miner, stone, yellow, mask, breath, Asia, Crater Liquid sulfur flows from a pipe. : Indonesia, Java, Sulfur, Sulfur Mine, Kawah Ijen, volcano, Angel Navarrete, colour, miner, stone, yellow, mask, breath, Asia, Crater A miner waits the toxic gas blur to take some liquid sulfur. : Indonesia, Java, Sulfur, Sulfur Mine, Kawah Ijen, volcano, Angel Navarrete, colour, miner, stone, yellow, mask, breath, Asia, Crater A miner extracts sulfur´ stones using a spear. : Indonesia, Java, Sulfur, Sulfur Mine, Kawah Ijen, volcano, Angel Navarrete, colour, miner, stone, yellow, mask, breath, Asia, Crater An indonesian miner breaks sulfur stones to transport. : Indonesia, Java, Sulfur, Sulfur Mine, Kawah Ijen, volcano, Angel Navarrete, colour, miner, stone, yellow, mask, breath, Asia, Crater
A miner stands in toxic gas as he extracts sulfur stones from Sulfur´s mine in the crater of Indonesia's Kawah Ijen volcano. : Indonesia, Java, Sulfur, Sulfur Mine, Kawah Ijen, volcano, Angel Navarrete, colour, miner, stone, yellow, mask, breath, Asia, Crater A miner waits the toxic gas blur to extract sulfur´s stones. : Indonesia, Java, Sulfur, Sulfur Mine, Kawah Ijen, volcano, Angel Navarrete, colour, miner, stone, yellow, mask, breath, Asia, Crater A miner stands in toxic gas as he extracts sulfur stones from Sulfur´s mine in the crater of Indonesia's Kawah Ijen volcano. : Indonesia, Java, Sulfur, Sulfur Mine, Kawah Ijen, volcano, Angel Navarrete, colour, miner, stone, yellow, mask, breath, Asia, Crater An empty basket ready to be filled with sulfur stones to carry from Sulfur´s mine. : Indonesia, Java, Sulfur, Sulfur Mine, Kawah Ijen, volcano, Angel Navarrete, colour, miner, stone, yellow, mask, breath, Asia, Crater Miners break sulfur stones to transport. : Indonesia, Java, Sulfur, Sulfur Mine, Kawah Ijen, volcano, Angel Navarrete, colour, miner, stone, yellow, mask, breath, Asia, Crater View of the Sulfur´s mine and Sulfuric Acid lake : Indonesia, Java, Sulfur, Sulfur Mine, Kawah Ijen, volcano, Angel Navarrete, colour, miner, stone, yellow, mask, breath, Asia, Crater
A miner carries baskets of sulfur stones from the Sulfur´s mine in the crater of Kawah Ijen Volcano. : Indonesia, Java, Sulfur, Sulfur Mine, Kawah Ijen, volcano, Angel Navarrete, colour, miner, stone, yellow, mask, breath, Asia, Crater A miner carries baskets of sulfur stones from the Sulfur´s mine. : Indonesia, Java, Sulfur, Sulfur Mine, Kawah Ijen, volcano, Angel Navarrete, colour, miner, stone, yellow, mask, breath, Asia, Crater A miner carries baskets of sulfur stones from the Sulfur´s mine. : Indonesia, Java, Sulfur, Sulfur Mine, Kawah Ijen, volcano, Angel Navarrete, colour, miner, stone, yellow, mask, breath, Asia, Crater A miner takes a break in the Sulfur´s mine of Kawan Ijen volcano complex. : Indonesia, Java, Sulfur, Sulfur Mine, Kawah Ijen, volcano, Angel Navarrete, colour, miner, stone, yellow, mask, breath, Asia, Crater A miner weighs his baskets at the Sulfur´s mine of Kawah Ijen volcano complex. : Indonesia, Java, Sulfur, Sulfur Mine, Kawah Ijen, volcano, Angel Navarrete, colour, miner, stone, yellow, mask, breath, Asia, Crater Some miners use obsoletes gas masks, the rest wear neck gaiters to protect themselves. : Indonesia, Java, Sulfur, Sulfur Mine, Kawah Ijen, volcano, Angel Navarrete, colour, miner, stone, yellow, mask, breath, Asia, Crater
A miner cuts wood to use as combustible near the shed where sulfur´s miners rest in the hillside of Kajah Iwen volcano. : Indonesia, Java, Sulfur, Sulfur Mine, Kawah Ijen, volcano, Angel Navarrete, colour, miner, stone, yellow, mask, breath, Asia, Crater A miner poses for the photographer while he has sulfur in his eyebrows and eyelashes. : Indonesia, Java, Sulfur, Sulfur Mine, Kawah Ijen, volcano, Angel Navarrete, colour, miner, stone, yellow, mask, breath, Asia, Crater A miner rests in a shed in the hillside of Indonesia's Kajah Iwen volcano. : Indonesia, Java, Sulfur, Sulfur Mine, Kawah Ijen, volcano, Angel Navarrete, colour, miner, stone, yellow, mask, breath, Asia, Crater